Postgrad Med J 79:81-83 doi:10.1136/pmj.79.928.81
  • Review

Migraine, memory loss, and “multiple sclerosis ”. Neurological features of the antiphospholipid (Hughes’) syndrome

  1. G R V Hughes
  1. Correspondence to:
 Dr Graham Hughes, Lupus Unit, St Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH;{at}
  • Received 29 July 2002
  • Accepted 30 October 2002


The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS, Hughes’ syndrome), first described in 1983, is a prothrombotic disease in which neurological events feature prominently. Strokes, transient ischaemic attacks, and headaches (including migraine) are important complications. However, it is clear that other neurological symptoms, including diplopia, memory loss, ataxia, and “multiple sclerosis-like” features are common. A notable feature of Hughes’ syndrome is the clinical response to anticoagulants; features such as headache and memory loss often improving dramatically with appropriate warfarin dosage. APS may well become recognised as an important (and potentially treatable) cause of neurological disease.