A 24 year old woman living in the Mediterranean region of Turkey present with a three-month history of weight loss and irregular fever that was peaking at 40 degrees C with shivering. No definite aetiology could be identified in a local hospital. A bacterial infection had been suspected, but antibiotic therapy, at first with sulbactam-ampicillin and later with azithromycin, had no influence on the fever. Physical examination revealed an emaciated patient with fever (39 degrees C), pallor, and hepatosplenomegaly (spleen 9 cm and liver 5 cm palpable below the costal margin). No peripheral lymphadenopathy was present. The laboratory examinations are summarised in the table. Notably, a prominent increase of macrophages containing intracellular micro-organisms (figures 1 and 2) was seen in the bone marrow smears. The same micro-organisms were also identified within the Kupffer cells in liver biopsy.