Testicular cancer is the commonest malignancy in young males and its incidence has more than doubled in the last 25 years. For clinical purposes, two tumour types are identified, seminoma and non-seminoma germ cell tumours (loosely known as teratomas). Stage I disease is confined to the testes and is managed surgically, with adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy as appropriate. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is the cornerstone of treatment for metastatic disease, with cure rates exceeding 80%. Early diagnosis and cure should be the aim in all patients. To this end, those with testicular symptoms should be evaluated promptly by ultrasound, and in young male patients presenting with the clinical picture of metastatic disease, germ cell tumour should top the list of differential diagnoses.
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