This review presents a critical evaluation of the role of Helicobacter pylori eradication in the management of peptic ulcer disease and non-ulcer dyspepsia. On current evidence, H. pylori eradication therapy seems likely to emerge as the most rational and cost-effective treatment for duodenal ulcer. The role of H. pylori eradication in the treatment of gastric ulcer and non-ulcer dyspepsia is unclear and requires further study. The emerging problem of antibiotic resistance in H. pylori is of major clinical importance and a prime cause of treatment failure. There is increasing evidence of a link between H. pylori and gastric cancer but it is premature to recommend large-scale eradication of H. pylori as a valid strategy for the primary prevention of gastric cancer. The search continues for the ideal H. pylori eradication regimen.
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