A case of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma following resection is reported. The patient received 2 treatments of 131I-lipiodol administered via the hepatic artery at angiography. Good localization in tumour tissue was observed on subsequent computed tomographic scans and no adverse effects were seen after either treatment. After the first treatment 2 nodules of recurrent tumour were resected and proved to be totally necrotic. The patient remains well 9 months later with a persistently elevated serum alphafetoprotein but no evidence of residual tumour. It is suggested that 131I-lipiodol may be the treatment of choice for small tumours in elderly high-risk patients.