Six patients had serious complications as consequences of treatment of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Five had splenectomy-related complications, one of them developed fatal intra-abdominal bleeding. Three patients acquired operation-related serious infection, two of them died. Serious neutropenia after vinblastine-loaded platelets occurred in one patient leading to pseudomonas septicaemia and panophthalmitis with permanent vision loss of left eye. Recurrence thrombocytopenia occurred in every case during serious complications. Early detection by awareness of the possibility of serious complications can reduce morbidity and mortality occurring after therapy of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.