The protean neurological manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are reviewed. Both the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system may be affected and many of the complications may occur in individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related complex, or who are seropositive for HIV alone as well as those with the established AIDS syndrome. Specific therapy is available for certain of these neurological conditions, but the clinical course in others is untreatable and progressive. Although it seems likely that the pathogenesis of some of these syndromes such as the AIDS-dementia complex are due to the direct effect of HIV on the nervous system, in others the neurological injury probably occurs as a consequence of the immunosuppression which HIV induces, or immune-mediated mechanisms.
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