Ninety-five renal transplant recipients from an endemic area of tuberculosis were investigated to find out the prevalence and course of tuberculosis in pre- and post-transplant periods. Eleven patients had tuberculosis in the pre-transplant period - pulmonary (2), pleural (2), miliary (1), abdominal (2), lymph node (5) and pericardial (1). They were transplanted after antituberculous therapy of 3 to 6 months with satisfactory results. The anti-tuberculous treatment was usually continued for 2 years. Only one of the above 11 patients had evidence of tuberculosis in the post-transplant period. Nine patients developed tuberculosis for the first time in the post-transplant period - pulmonary (4), pleural (1), miliary (1), lymph node (4) and pericardial (1). There was no mortality due to tuberculosis. Thorough search for tuberculosis is mandatory both during pre-transplant assessment and post-transplant follow-up in areas of endemic tuberculosis.