One hundred and twenty-four patients (70 men and 54 women) who were treated for hypertension after a stroke, between 1968 and 1976, were studied. Twenty-one (11 men and 10 women) developed a second stroke after a mean period of just over 2 years. The women who had a stroke recurrence had higher initial systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) as well as higher achieved BP. The men with recurrence had no significant difference in initial BP but had higher BP on treatment. Patients who achieved BP of <160 mmHg systolic or 90 mmHg diastolic had a low incidence of recurrent stroke. Good BP control in hypertensive patients prevents stroke recurrence but may be difficult to achieve.