The FAO/WHO Rome Report recommended an increase in the consumption of fat in countries where malnutrition is endemic; for maintenance, 3% of the dietary energy as essential fatty acids (EFA) may be adequate; in pregnancy and lactation an additional 1.5 to 2.4% energy as EFA is needed. For population at high risk for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) the recommendations were to decrease saturated fat in particular and increase EFA intake in the diet, reduce sugar, alcohol and cholesterol. These recommendations were similar to those of the Royal College of Physicians but the report went further by saying that EFA loss through industrial hydrogenation should be minimized and associated nutrients such as vitamin E and carotene should be restored if lost in processing. In terms of production, they asked for an increase in edible plant oils in developing countries and requested that intensive animal feeding and breeding should be corrected to avoid the excess accumulation of saturated fats. In addition, the Rome Report requested meaningful labelling of amounts and quality of fat in foods containing added fats. The basic aims of the Report were to state the position of lipid nutrition. The issue of the nutrient correction in terms of CHD cannot properly be discussed without taking into account the essential components which are needed for the integrity and development of the vascular system.