In a randomized, controlled clinical study, dextran-70, warfarin, or low-dose heparin were administered to patients undergoing total hip replacement on one surgical unit in an attempt to prevent deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Calf vein thrombosis was detected by the 125I-fibrinogen uptake test. None of the methods prevented calf vein thrombosis (dextran-70, 51%; warfarin, 58-6%; heparin, 52-6%). Pulmonary embolism was completely prevented in patients treated with warfarin but occurred in 4% of patients treated with dextran-70 and 15-5% of those treated with low-dose heparin. The incidence of complications of therapy was small and comparable in each group. It is suggested that calf vein thrombosis is a frequent and in itself a non-serious complication of total hip replacement surgery and that emphasis might be placed more usefully on prevention of pulmonary embolism.