The ‘bootstrap’ model of the handling of salt, water and urea by the renal medulla is based on the concepts and data of Stephenson (1972), and Kokko and Rector (1972), and adds support to them. Revision of the traditional counter current hypothesis is necessary since active transport of salt and urea is absent from the inner medulla. This advanced model is structured appropriately and demonstrates how events in the medulla interact and vary with time as change from a diuretic to an antidiuretic state proceeds.
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