Lowering of lipids in patients with chronic renal failure is advantageous but cannot be done by calorie restriction. In a controlled study the anabolic steroid norethandrolone (Nilevar) was found to lower triglycerides by 50%, while D-thyroxine (Choloxin) lowered the cholesterol by 25%. Both drugs increased the activity of lipoprotein lipase in spite of uraemic inhibition. Norethandrolone also reduced basal serum insulin levels. Norethandrolone seems appropriate for underweight patients and D-thyroxine for overweight patients, but side effects are more frequent than in non-uraemic patients.