Oesophagoscopy will establish a definite preoperative diagnosis of a radiologically suspected malignancy by guided biopsy and/or brush cytology. The rigid instruments should only be used for photodocumentation since the hazards are considerably greater compared with the fibre-endoscopes. In obstructing lesions of the lower third of the oesophagus where a primary gastric cancer is suspected a passage of the instrument into the stomach should be attempted since a positive biopsy is easier obtained after a U-turn manoeuvre.
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